Haven’t we always wondered what happens in the world? How do birds fly? What makes it rain? What’s the need of a catch basin? OK pause. Judging by the desperate nature of the examples, you would’ve figured that this is an unwanted intro to something completely different. You’re not all that wrong.
Like the questions, we also have one burning question inside us. How are laws made? The easy answer is: we as people elect our representatives through elections, these representatives come up with ideas that could improve our lives. Once an elected representative (most often but not always is a part of the government in power) comes up with something, he/she then tables (floats/pitches etc) the idea in the parliament, where the rest of the representatives (both from the govt and opposition) take an objective look at it, study it and come up with questions and amendments to the proposed idea. Sometimes this results in lengthy debates, setting up on committees for further studies and finally when everyone is satisfied with the amount of debating, the proposal – also called a bill is subjected to a vote and if the bill passes the vote, then does the idea become a law? Well not exactly, but this is the first step – Ok what are the other steps then? We’ll take that up some other day – but just to remind you, this was in your secondary school civics text books.
So, what is this blog about?
This blog is about taking a look at whether it is really all that simple. Do laws just get ‘tabled’ in the parliament, debated upon and passed into being laws or does something else happen? Let’s look at one day – hence the cheesy title – A Day in Paradise. For our purpose, I’ve taken up 4th July 2019 as a case for our study. Now let’s dive in – there will be technical terms and ‘governmental’ or ‘parliamentary’ jargon what we’ll try to define in simple terms as we move along.
Business in our terms means agenda. It is the list of activities that are planned for a day’s work in the parliament. The Business is generally published 2 days in advance and in case of revisions, a revised List of Business is published and shared with the members of the parliament. I’m not sure if all the ministers coming to the parliament go through this before coming but its published as a matter of practice and standards.
Here’s the gist of what was going to be the business of the day for 4th July 2019: But first lets just understand what the different things mean
- Any questions to be asked of any member of parliament – these needs to separately listed and made available to the said member of parliament so as to be able to prepare and answer the question.
- Papers to be laid on the table
- These are basically reports or notifications that any member of parliament wants to bring to the notice of the parliament. Once a paper is placed on the table, it may be brought up in discussions in the parliament (also called the house) or in general cases it is just a point of information for the house. Eg: certain XYZ Report has been produced by the ministry of oil and gas based on a study done on all oil refineries on the east coast of India.
- Messages from either of the houses to each other or from the different state heads or the president that needs to be relayed in the parliament.
- Ministers or committee members can raise a request to make a statement in the parliament, these requests are taken by the speaker and based on merits and discretion provided a slot to make the statement.
- Basically a topic or a line of thought that any member of parliament wants to bring out in the house and start a debate and discussion or come to consensus about a past discussion or debate.
- It is a kind of coming to a decision about a certain topic, or bill or business of the house. Best explained with an example. The Finance minister can move to bring a resolution on changing the Duty on say computers from 10% to 20%. Now this isn’t a law or something that will amend a law, but it is something of importance to the nation and hence needs to get an approval from the parliament. Hence the minister will move for a resolution and the house will vote aye or nay for or against the resolution.
- Legislative Business
- The thing that we thought was the main business of the parliament – making laws. These are basically laws and bills that are not yet laws that a minister may bring up for creation or amendment. These bills once brought up can either be taken up for debate and discussion or be brought up for the vote.
- Matters under rule 377
- Matters of business that don’t fall into any of the other mentioned categories
Now the table above talks numbers, but what are the questions raised? Are any of them really really important to the nation and how did the concerned member/minister respond to the question? What are the messages replayed in house? What were the motions submitted? And was there a debate on the said motion? How was the bill passes? Was there a debate? The things we see on TV, the ruckus and commotion, can we capture that? Well truth be told, all the commotion and ruckus is also captured and is there for everyone to see.
For starters, the happenings in the parliament are all on record. Secondly most of it is video recorded and available on the TV channels LSTV and RSTV. The video recordings of these parliamentary sessions is also available on the websites of the loksabha and rajyasabha. The websites of Loksabha and Rajyasabha also have PDFs of all the documents that you need to look up. The list of business, the questions, the bulletins, the debates and the speeches held on the floor of the house.
The objective of this blog post was not to bring out what happened in the parliament. Its to give the reader a general idea of what happens and that our parliament has enabled us as citizens to look for and find all the information about the happenings of the legislative arm of our democracy.
Since there is hardly a fortnight left in the current session of the parliament, Dr. Timepass will compile data of the business of the house in these 2 weeks and do some qualitative review. Come back again by the weekend to see what happened in the lower house of the Indian parliament this week and what we at Dr. Timepass make of it.